Home » Health » Decaffeination 101: Four Ways to Decaffeinate Coffee

Decaffeination 101: Four Ways to Decaffeinate Coffee

by

Post image for Decaffeination 101: Four Ways to Decaffeinate Coffee
SHARE THE LOVE!

Let’s begin by stating the obvious. Caffeine occurs in coffee naturally, so any method of decaffeination (no matter how good it is) is considered by many aficionados unnatural. Some go even so far as claiming that it goes against the natural order of things. Yet there are about 10% of coffee lovers who would like to enjoy a good cup of coffee without the mild stimulating affect of caffeine.

Can it be done? Can you really have a GOOD cup of coffee that has been subjected to a decaffeination process? Read on and make up your own mind whether it’s possible.

CAVEAT EMPTOR: “decaffeinated” does not mean 100% caffeine free. In fact a decaf coffee only needs to be 97% caffeine free according to the USDA. That means that an average 12 oz. cup of decaffeinated coffee, which originally might have been packed with 180 mg of caffeine, now only would contain 5.4 mg of caffeine.

What All Decaffeination Processes Have in Common

Before we look at any specific decaffeination process let’s see what they share in common as a group.

  • Coffee is always decaffeinated in its green (unroasted) state.
  • The greatest challenge is to try to separate only the caffeine from the coffee beans while leaving the other chemicals at their original concentrations. This is not easy since coffee contains somewhere around 1,000 chemicals that are important to the taste and aroma of this wonderfully complex elixir.
  • Since caffeine is a water-soluble substance, water is used in all forms of decaffeination.
  • However, water by itself is not the best solution for decaffeination. Water is not a “selective” solvent and therefore removes other soluble substances, like sugars and proteins, as well as caffeine. Therefore all decaffeination processes use a decaffeinating agent (such as methylene chloride, activated charcoal, CO2, or ethyl acetate). These agents help speed up the process and minimize the “washed-out” effects that water alone would have on the taste of decaf coffee.

The Roselius Process

The first commercially successful decaffeination process was invented by the German coffee merchant Ludwig Roselius in 1903 and patented in 1906. Legend has it that his quest for decaffeinated coffee was motivated by the belief that excessive coffee drinking had poisoned his father.

The “Roslius Process” involved steaming coffee beans with a brine solution (i.e., water, saturated with salt) and then using the organic chemical compound benzene as a solvent to extract the caffeine. This process, however, is no longer used due to the fact that benzene is known to be a human carcinogen.

The Four Main Methods of Decaffeination Used Today

In order to keep things nicely organized, let’s group the four processes into two general categories, each containing two methods.

Solvent-based processes

Non-Solvent Based Processes

  • Indirect-Solvent Process
  • Direct-solvent Process
  • Swiss Water Process
  • Carbon Dioxide Process

Solvent based processes are those in which the caffeine is removed from the beans with the help of a chemical solvent, such as methylene chloride or ethyl acetate. Those solvent based processes in turn can be divided into methods using the “direct” method versus the “indirect” method.

In the direct method caffeine is removed by soaking the materials directly in a solvent; the solvent is directly applied to the beans. On the other hand, in the indirect method the caffeine-laden water is transferred to a separate tank and treated with a solvent; in this case the solvent never touches the beans.

Solvents used in decaffeination

As I’ve mentioned above, the decaffeination of coffee involves the use of a decaffeination agent. In solvent-based processes a chemical solvent is added either directly or indirectly to selectively remove the caffeine.

Given numerous health scares connected to early efforts in decaffeination (the hit list of toxic solvents includes: benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloromethane and even chloroform) the solvents of choice have become methylene chloride and ethyl acetate.

Although methylene chloride (CH2Cl2), aka dichloromethane (in Europe) or MC, is a solvent, its use as a decaffeination agent is not considered a health risk. In fact the Food and Drug Administration has determined any potential health risk is so low “as to be essentially non-existent” (FDA, 1985). While the FDA regulation allows up to ten parts per million (ppm) residual methylene chloride, actual coffee industry practice result in levels closer to one part per million.

Furthermore, while it is probable that traces of the solvent remain in the decaffeinated beans it seems very unlikely that methylene chloride would survive the roasting process. This colorless liquid is highly volatile and vaporizes at 104 degrees F. Now if you take into consideration that coffee is roasted at a minimum of 400 degrees F for at least 15 minutes, and that proper brewing temperature is at about 200 degrees F, it seems unlikely that much if any methylene chloride would end up in your cup of Java.

Ethyl acetate (CH3CO2C2H5) is hailed by some to be more “natural” than other chemicals and safer than methylene chloride since it exists in minute quantities in ripening fruits, such as apples and blackberries. Because this solvent occurs in nature you’ll often see coffee beans decaffeinated with this method labeled as “naturally” decaffeinated.

However, because of the impracticality of gathering natural ethyl acetate and its cost, the chemical used for decaffeination appears to be synthetic. Ethyl acetate is produced commercially from ethyl alcohol and acetic acid, which in turn may be produced from natural ingredients or petroleum derivatives.

Ethyl acetate, like methylene chloride, is very volatile and hence the point made above also applies here.

Now that we’ve got a basic framework to work with let’s have a closer look at the before mentioned methods. Since 70% of all coffee is decaffeinated with the help of solvents, I’ll start with solvent based processes.

1) The Indirect–Solvent Based Process

In the indirect-solvent method the coffee beans are soaked in near boiling water for several hours, which extracts the caffeine as well as other flavor elements and oils from the beans.

The water is then separated and transferred to another tank where the beans are washed for about 10 hours with either methylene chloride or ethyl acetate. The molecules of the chemical solvent selectively bond with the molecules of caffeine and the resulting mixture is then heated to evaporate the solvent and caffeine.

Lastly, the beans are reintroduced to the liquid to reabsorb most of the coffee oils and flavor elements.

This method is very popular in Europe, especially in Germany, and primarily uses methylene chloride as solvent. Hence it’s often referred to as “KVW Method” (short for: Kaffee Veredelugs Werk), “The European Method”, “Methylene Chloride Method”, or “Euro Prep”.

2) The Direct–Solvent Based Process

In this method of decaffeination the beans are steamed for about 30 minutes in order to open their pores. Once the coffee beans are receptive to a solvent, they are repeatedly rinsed with either methylene chloride or ethyl acetate for about 10 hours to remove the caffeine. The caffeine-laden solvent is then drained away and the beans are steamed again to remove any residual solvent.

Most of the time the solvent of choice in this method is ethyl acetate, so you’ll often see it referred to as “The Natural Decaffeination Method” or “The Ethyl Acetate Method”.

Typically, if a process is not named for a decaffeinated coffee, it has been treated by either the direct or indirect solvent methods.

1) The Swiss Water Process (SWP)

AKA: SWP Method, Swiss Water Process, Activated Charcoal Decaffeination, Dihydro-oxide Process

The History

This chemical-free water decaffeination process was pioneered in Switzerland in 1933 and developed as a commercially viable method of decaffeination by Coffex S.A. in 1980. In 1988 the Swiss Water Method was finally introduced to the market and its facility is based near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Note that the Swiss Water Company’s decaffeination facility is the only facility in the world certified organic by both OCIA and Aurora Certified Organic. In addition, they are also certified Kosher by the Kosher Overseers Association.

A Short Explanation of SWP

This particular method of decaffeination is different from what we’ve so far seen in that it does not directly or indirectly add chemicals to extract the caffeine. Rather, it relies entirely on two concepts, namely solubility and osmosis, to decaffeinate coffee beans.

It begins by soaking a batch of beans in very hot water in order to dissolve the caffeine. The water is then drawn off and passed through an activated charcoal filter. The porosity of this filter is sized to only capture larger caffeine molecules, while allowing smaller oil and flavor molecules to pass through it.

Consequently we end up with beans with no caffeine and no flavor in one tank, and caffeine-free “flavor charged” water (aka “Green Coffee Extract”) in another tank.

And here’s where the magic happens. The flavorless caffeine-free beans are discarded, but the flavor rich water is reused to remove the caffeine from a fresh batch of coffee beans.

Since this water already is saturated with flavor ingredients the flavors in this fresh batch can’t dissolve; only caffeine moves from the coffee beans to the water. So the result is decaffeination without a massive loss of flavor.

Coffees decaffeinated by this method are always labeled as “SWISS WATER” Decaf.

This method is almost exclusively used for decaffeination of organic coffee.

Coffee decaffeinated using the environment-friendly Swiss Water Process undergoes regular caffeine level audits to ensure compliance to 99.9% caffeine-free.

2) CO2 process

AKA: CO2 (or Carbon Dioxide ) Method, Liquid Carbon Dioxide Method, Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Method

The Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Method is the most recent method. It was developed by Kurt Zosel, a scientist of the Max Plank Institute, and uses liquid CO2 in place of chemical solvents. It acts selectively on the caffeine, i.e., it releases the alkaloid and nothing else.

In the CO2 decaffeination process, water soaked coffee beans are placed in a stainless steel container called the extraction vessel. The extractor is then sealed and liquid CO2 is forced into the coffee at pressures of 1,000 pounds per square inch to extract the caffeine.

The CO2 acts as the solvent to dissolve and draw the caffeine from the coffee beans, leaving the larger-molecule flavor components behind. The caffeine laden CO2 is then transferred to another container called the absorption chamber. Here the pressure is released and the CO2 returns to its gaseous state, leaving the caffeine behind. The caffeine free CO2 gas is pumped back into a pressurized container for reuse.

Because of its cost, this process is primarily used to decaffeinate large quantities of commercial-grade, less-exotic coffee found in grocery stores.

Why is it so Difficult to Make Good Decaf Coffee?

Let’s start by stating a sad fact first: finding a good decaf coffee is the exception rather than the norm. The reason for this centers around two problems that are very difficult to overcome.

First, as we’ve already seen, the decaffeination process tends to damage many flavor compounds that contribute to the sensory character of roasted coffee.

Secondly, decaf coffees are notoriously difficult to roast. The reason for this is that decaffeinated, unroasted coffee beans start off almost brown in color rather than green. This makes it difficult for the roasters to control them, since they respond inconsistently and exaggeratedly to heat applied to them during roasting. Furthermore, they have less bound moisture content, which causes them to roast faster. So, you dealing with an unroasted “green” bean that tends to roast darker and faster than un-decaffeinated beans.

But all is not lost. Given what we just learned we can use this information to ensure a better decaf experience. Overall the type of roast you buy is going to have more of an impact on the taste than the decaf method. Try to avoid any decaf coffees that are really dark and oily, for you certainly don’t want to add the ravages of a very dark roast to the rigors of any decaffeination process.

What’s your favorite decaf? Is there any particular process or roaster that you particularly like? Let’s here it in the comments!

…and if you found this article valuable, go ahead and share it on your favorite social network 😉

First photo by umers30

About Lorenzo

Lorenzo’s quest for the ultimate cup of coffee drives him like a maniac to understand the inner workings of all things related to coffee. This site is the result of those ravings. Enjoy! Follow him on Twitter and Facebook!

Danny Barrett

Thank you Lorenzo for the very responsible research you did. For the last several years of “on and off” decaf drinking I have experienced headaches during those “on” times. I did know of “chemical decaf” and “water decaf” processes but today I learned of 4 from you. I chose decaf over caf because I hated dealing with headaches as a result of coffee in general. In the last week I fell off the wagon and drank McDonalds’ decaf as it tasted smoother than Starbucks’ but now I am dealing with a mild headache that is stubborn and refuses to leave even with my usual painkillers. I decided it was high time to not trust the convenience of buying prepared decaf coffee but to do it myself for those days I am in the mood for this hot roasty drink. This would mean investing into a coffee machine or gadget and buying beans/grounds that are SWISS WATER WASHED thanks to you Sir! I did go to a foodstore and scoured the decaf bags there and found NONE that clearly says it is organic BOTH in the beans and in the process! Organic beans but with chemicals to decaffeinate it? No way… So help me out please as to where I can land myself those beans I seek 🙂

Reply

Anita Ojeda

I’ve found a great-tasting decaf on Amazon–‘Coffee Bean Direct CO2 Decaf Espresso Coffee’. It makes great espresso and tastes wonderful. Of course, Greenwell Farms Decaffeinated Dark Roast Kona coffee is also amazing (they use the Swiss method).

Reply

Hank Rogers

I owned a small roasting company for 6 years and roasted small batches of coffee. My favorite decaf was MC method Ethiopian. It had better flavor than some non-decaf coffees.

Reply

Victoria

Hey, I really appreciated your information as I am currently writing a paper on decaffeination. It would be incredibly helpful if you sighted sources, specifically where you got the figure on the number of chemicals within coffee that make up its flavor properties. Thanks!

Reply

Sheldon Bass

What drove me to this page? Oh, I remember, I’m out of coffee and only my wife’s decaf was available this AM. The various decaffeinating processes were explained well in this post—in terms that my under-stimulated brain could comprehend. That’s not an easy task when I haven’t had my regular coffee. Kudos Lorenzo! As I sit drinking this decaf, scouring the container to see if they list which process they used to ruin my day, I’m wondering something. “Has the person who first came up with the idea of tampering with God’s wonderful creation of the coffee bean ever been sufficiently punished?” Whatever the case may be, I just might live until I make it to my coffee supplier. Have a great day all.

Reply

vivian elliff

OK, I’ll ask the question again. Does eight o’clock coffee use the Swiss water process for its decaffeinated coffee?

Reply

Lorenzo

Hi Vivian,
I’ve just heard back from a very helpful representative over at Eight O’clock Coffee and here’s what she said:
“Eight O’Clock Coffee uses a well-established decaffeinating process, which involves a special purity methylene chloride that is fully approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration for safety and effectiveness. The coffee beans emerge with a negligible trace of the substance. This method is used for our Decaffeinated beans.”

Reply

Matthew Benton

Thanks Lorenzo, that’s a useful summary of decaffeination.

I stopped drinking instant decaff in the eighties when I found out my brand was chemically treated to get the caffeine out. Here in the UK I’ve been drinking Taylor’s decaff ground, because it states it’s water decaffeinated, but much preferred the taste (and price!) of Sainsbury’s own blend. Because it doesn’t state the method on the pack I always assumed it must be chemically decaffeinated. But their customer service has confirmed they use the Co2 process and the same goes for instant decaff. I suggested they consider putting that on the pack because it would help their sales, and encourage people to consider decaff as an option, as I think there is a perception that decaff coffee is full of chemicals – regardless of what the USFDA say about safety.

Anyway, great article, thanks.

Reply

Krystle Matar

I’ve just decided to switch to decaf during my pregnancy. Not only conscientious of the effect on the bun in the proverbial oven, I also find that the caffeine has a more profound effect on my system, leaving me tossing and turning while my husband saws logs.
Anyway, in a whim and without research, I decided to try Kicking Horse brand Swiss Water Decaf, a Canadian roaster that’s Fair Trade and Organic. It’s quite good! While enjoying it I wondered how they decaffeinated my yummy coffee and found this article, in which I learned I made a lucky choice since all caffeine is not taken care of equally 🙂 So thank you for satisfying my curiosity and thanks to Kicking Horse for satisfying my coffee lover.

Reply

Nina

Great article. Very informative. Thanks for posting it. I’m confused about which molecules are bigger, caffeine molecules or flavor molecules. The following statements seem conflicting, but I might be wrong:

A Short Explanation of SWP
“The porosity of this filter is sized to only capture larger caffeine molecules, while allowing smaller oil and flavor molecules to pass through it.”

2) CO2 process
“The CO2 acts as the solvent to dissolve and draw the caffeine from the coffee beans, leaving the larger-molecule flavor components behind.”

Reply

Anissa

I too was confused at first on the possible contradiction, but after reading it again realized what it’s saying is…
The 1,000 or so flavor and oil molecules (stated towards the top of the article) consist of many different sizes, large and small, relative to caffeine (caffeine is not that large or small of an organic molecule). Using the SWP mostly the smaller than caffeine molecules pass through the activated charcoal filter or possibly inorganic larger molecules (seeing as activated charcoal is not effective at removing inorganic compounds such as lead from drinking water) and are then carried over to the next step in the process.
While using the CO2 method it is the larger molecules and those not soluble in liquid CO2 that remain in the bean while the smaller compounds and caffeine leech out to be removed.
Therefore, no contradiction is necessary.
What I’m confused about is…
Under the heading “Solvents used on decaffeination” the hit list of toxic solvents included dichloromethane, however, it then goes to state dichloromethane from decaffeinated coffee is completely safe according to the FDA.
Was it included on the hit list of toxic solvents because earlier methods of decaffeination allowed levels of dichloromethane to exceed safe levels? If so, it would still evaporate during roasting, etc. Or perhaps, during roasting the vapors caused respiratory hazards to worker in the facility that roasts the coffee beans?

Reply

Elizabeth Golding

Hi Lorenzo,
First: thank you. This is a very interesting an informative article. I like to drink decaf coffee as my second or third cup. Sometimes I try to drink it instead of caffeinated coffee so i don’t develop a headache when I go without. Can you recommend any brands of decaf that you’ve tried and like? I live in Boston, Massachusetts and can also buy online if necessary.

Thank You,
Elizabeth

Reply

Chris Lee

Thanks for the informative piece! I live in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and my friend got me to try a decaf from a local roaster called 23 Degrees Roastery. I was surprised at how good it was – It tasted just like a regular coffee, and wasn’t too dark, which I like (label says medium-dark). It was a Swiss Water Process, and on top of it all, it was also fair trade and organic certified. Would strongly recommend! They also sell on-line.

Reply

Lorenzo Emden

Thx for the tip! Will try it next time I’m in the mood for decaf.

Reply

Edmund

Enjoyed the article though I try to avoid decafe. I’ve observed waitresses dump a small volume of decafe into the regular coffee pot so they could start a fresh pot of decafe. Then I would get the contaminated coffee served to me. After a couple such occurences I realized that the contaminated coffee was the cause of me getting severe stomach pain. I’ve educated a few waitresses and keep an eye on the coffee brewing where I can.
BTW I believe it is the lack of caffeine The Day After that causes some to get headaches. Your brain wants more caffeine and it does help keep you alert for the short haul.

Reply

Lorenzo Emden

Hi Edmund, isn’t that protected by anti-dumping laws 😉 That’s why I go to small, locally owned coffee shops that have a vested interest in quality control.

Reply

George Beech

Started doing research on the various decafs after reading an article in the April 2016 issue of fresh cup magazine. More than an afterthought by Ellie Bradley. Had fun with my new found knowledge. On thesday a customer stopped in an said he was going to buy decaf for his wife. He asked me what brand I would recommend adding: ” not that it makes any difference.” . I then launched into a five minute lecture of the various types of decaf processes and how they impact flavor.

Reply

Lorenzo

George, thx for the Fresh Cup Magazine reference. Just checked and it looks like I can order this issue online. Glad to hear you’re educating your customers to do the right thing 😉

Reply

Jian Zhang

What do you do with the caffeine that is removed from coffee? The reason I ask this is because I find a new use of caffeine in renewable chemical battery, and I wish to make use of something that may not be that valuable.

Reply

Doug Blasco

Heellloooo…..Lorenzo and Thank You for a great write-up. I am 63 and at my last check-up my Doc told me to stop drinking coffee because of elevated blood pressure. Quit Coffee?? Why don’t you just rip my Heart out. I mean, hey, for the vast majority of the last 50 years, I have started my day with a big mug of black coffee and that propelled me through my day. So, since I am not going to give up my coffee, going decaf was the only way to go. But what do I know about decaf, I know nothing. I was going to Amazon to order up so whole bean decaf but then I saw the SWP and I knew I needed to learn. Your page gave me everything I needed to know….Thanks. Oh yes, by the way, decaffeinating myself was much easier than I thought and since I am now retired, I really don’t need the KIck that I got from regular coffee. And the best part is that I am sleeping much, much better. A Huge Plus.

Reply

Speak Your Mind!